Science And Technology (212) Free Solved TMA Assignment 2021-22

NIOS Science And Technology 212 Solved TMA

INTRODUCTION

You can make this TMA if you have to appear in the exam in April 2022 or October 2022, the TMA for both sessions is exactly the same. This TMA we have made for you by a good science teacher, if you write it well then you will get 95+%. And you can also download it in PDF format for free.

Question And Answer

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words
(b) Ram is down with high fever. His mother measures his body temperature to 39°C using a celcius thermometer. Before leaving for the doctor’s clinic she wants to know the value on fahrenheit scale. Help her to convert the temperature on fahrenheit scale.
(See lesson 14)

Ans: Ram is down with high fever. His mother measures his body temperature to 39°C using a celcius thermometer. Before leaving for the doctor's clinic she wants to know the value on fahrenheit scale. 
His fever was 39°C 
Formula to convert temp. from celcius to fahrenheit is ( F=9/5 C + 32).

(39°C × 9/5) + 32 = 102.2°F

His body temperature was 102.2 Fahrenheit.

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40 to 60 words.
(b) (i) Calculate the number of molecules present in 0.5 mole of water.

Ans: The number of molecules is defined as the one mole of a substance that contains 6.023×10^23 particles of the given substance. 6.023×10^23 is also known as Avogadro’s number. A mole is about 6.023×10^23 of anything. So half a mole of water (H2O) molecules is 3.011×10^23 molecules of water.

Thus there are 3.011×10^23 molecules of water in 0.5 moles of water.

2310231023
(ii) Calculate the formula mass of sodium carbonate dehydrate (Na2CO3 –10H2O)

Ans: Na2CO3 is a basic salt belonging to the sodium family. It exists in crystalline form with 10 water molecules. This turns it into the familiar washing soda.

Formula unit mass of Na2CO3
= 2×atomic mass of Na+1×atomic mass of C+3×atomic mass of O
=2×22.98+1×12.01+3×16
=105.97u

Formula unit mass of 10H2O
=10×atomic mass of H2O
=10×18.02
=180.02u

Formula unit mass of Na2CO3.10H2O
=105.97+180.02 
=285.99u

Therefore the molar mass of Na2CO3•10H2O is 286g.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40 to 60 words.
(b) Construct a food chain explaining flow of energy and nutrients in an ecosystem. (See lesson 29)

Ans: A food chain is a linear sequence of organisms through which nutrients and energy pass as one organism eats another. The levels in the food chain are producers, primary consumers, higher-level consumers, and finally decomposers. These levels are used to describe ecosystem structure and dynamĂ­cs.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.
You have visited the laboratory of a school and collected the following. (See lesson 14) 
(i) Nacl (ii) Ccl4 (iii) 12 (iv) Naphthalene (v) Mgcl2 (vi) Hcl (vii) C2H5OH

Ans: (NaCl) Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, It is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl.
(Ccl4) carbon tetrachloride also known by many other names,  It is an organic compound with the chemical formula Ccl4.
(I2) It is iodine.
(Naphthalene ) The white crystalline compound is produced by one distillation of coal for use in and as a raw material for chemical manufacture. Formula = C10H8
(Mgcl2) It is called magnesium chloride.
(HCl) It is called hydrochloric acid, the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride, is also commonly given the formula HCl.
(C2H5OH) Ethanol is an organic chemical compound. It is a simple alcohol with the chemical formula  C2H5OH

How does an ionic bond formed?
Ionic bond also called electrovalent bonds type of linkage formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged pons in a chemical compound. Such a bond forms when the valence  (outermost) electrons of one atom are transferred permanently to another atom.

Classify the above chemicals into ionic and covalent compounds.
Ionic bond
An ionic bond is formed b/w a metal and non-metal.
It has no definite shape.
They depends upon electrostatic force.
Covalent bond:
Consist of pair of electrons shared by two atoms.
High energy is required to break them two atoms can form covalent bonds depending upon their electronegativity.

Identify the compounds which are soluble in water.
NaCl is soluble in water.
Ccl4 is insoluble in water.
Naphthalene is insoluble in water.
Mgcl2 is soluble in water.
Hcl is soluble in water.
C2H5OH is soluble in water.

Which one has higher melting point Nacl or Naphthalene
NaCl has a higher melting point as compared to naphthalene because NaCl is an ionic compound and a strong force of attraction exists between Na & Cl.

NaCl (solid) will be a good conductor of electricity or not.
Solid (NaCl) is a bad conductor of electricity because the charged particles (ions) in solid (NaCl) are not capable of moving as they are bound by strong electrostatic forces. As a result, they can not conduct electricity.

Classify the above Chemicals into solid and liquid.
Solid: I2, Naphthalene, Mgcl2.
Liquid: NaCl, Ccl4, Hcl, C2H50H.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.
(a) Animals have three types of muscle tissue, striated found in arms etc. unstriated found in lining of stomach and cardiac found it the heart. Mention the characteristics of each which justify their presence in the locations mentioned above. (See lesson 7)

Ans: Yes animals have three types of muscles tissues. striated found in arms etc. unstriated found in lining of the stomach and cardiac found in the heart. 

Their characteristics:

1. SMOOTH MUSCLE
Smooth muscle is also called as involuntary or Unstriped muscle.
The muscles are spindle-shaped.
They have one nucleus in the center.
It is unbranched
LOCATION:- It is found in the blood vessels.

2. STRIPED MUSCLE
Striped muscle is also called as voluntary muscle or Skeletal muscle.
They are cylindrical-shaped
They have many nuclei towards the periphery
It is unbranched
LOCATION:- It is found in the Biceps of the upper arm.

3. CARDIAC MUSCLE
Cardiac muscle is also called as Heart muscle or involuntary muscle.
They are cylindrical-shaped.
It has one to two nuclei towards the center.
It is branched.
LOCATION:- It is found in the heart.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below.
What is novel “Coronavirus”?
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Most people who fall sick with COVID-19 will experience mild to moderate symptoms and recover without special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention.

List out the symptoms of novel coronavirus.
  • Fever or chills.
  • Cough.
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
  • Fatigue.
  • Muscle or body aches.
  • Headache.
  • New loss of taste or smell.
  • Sore throat.
What should we do if someone in family gets ill with COVID-19?
If someone in your home is sick or someone who has COVID-19 has been in your home in the last 24 hours, clean and disinfect your home. Disinfecting removes germs and reduces their spread.

The ill person should stay in a separate room. If this is not possible, then keep at least a 1-meter distance from them. The sick person and anyone else in the same room should wear a medical mask. Provide good ventilation in the room of the ill person and shared spaces, open windows if possible.

Why it is important to follow the guidelines to prevent transmission?
When an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, tiny particles called droplets or aerosols carry the virus from their nose or mouth into the air.
That's why we should follow all the guidelines of Corona properly.

 If you are not fully vaccinated and are older, you should wear a mask indoors and in public places. Wear a mask and maintain a distance of 6 feet from other people, get vaccinated, avoid crowds, wash hands from time to time.

How can you avoid the risk of infection?
There are 10 simple steps to avoid the risk of infection everyone should know.
  1. Stay calm
  2. Wash your hand
  3. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth
  4. Cover your nose and mouth when you sneeze
  5. Stay at home if you’re sick
  6. Avoid any unnecessary travel
  7. Avoid sharing household items
  8. Maintain social distancing
  9. Get Vaccinated
  10. Wear a face mask
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